Mệnh đề rút gọn – Reduced relative clause

Mệnh đề quan hệ relative clauses yếu tố quyết định cho IELTS .

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Mệnh đề rút gọn là một trong những yếu tố tiên phong giúp các bạn cải thiện điểm ngữ pháp trong IELTS Writing nói chung.  Vì vậy, ở bài viết này IELTS Thư Đặng sẽ tập trung cung cấp cho các bạn mới bắt đầu học IELTS những kiến thức, ví dụ và bài tập nhằm giúp các bạn nâng cao ngữ pháp tiếng Anh ( IELTS) bằng mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn và hướng dẫn bạn cách sử dụng đúng.

 

I. Mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn bằng cách sử dụng hiện tại phân từ V_ing ( present participle phrases).

*** Nếu động từ mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động ( active), chúng ta dùng cụm từ hiện tại phân từ

 ( V_ing) thay thế cho mệnh đề đó.

1. Bỏ đại từ quan hệ và động từ “ to be”.

vd: The girl who is standing there is my sister .

  •  The girl standing there is my sister. 

2. Bỏ đại từ quan hệ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu và thêm đuổi “-ing”:

VD: The girl who stood there is my sister.

  • The girl standing there is my sister. 
 
II. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách dùng quá khứ phân từ V3/ ed ( Past participle phrases).
  • Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động ( passive), các bạn dùng cụm quá khứ phân từ ( past participle phrase).
  • Bỏ đại từ quan hệ ( relative pronouns), động từ to be , nhưng vẫn giữ quá khứ phân từ V3/ ed.

VD:  The book which was written by To Hoai is the best- seller of this month.

  • The book written by To Hoai is the best –seller of this month. 

III. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng “ to infinitive”.

1. Khi danh từ đứng trước có các chữ dưới đây bổ nghĩa:  the only, the first, the second,…, the last, so sánh nhất.

VD:  This is the only student who can do well in my class.

=> This is the only student to do well in my class. 

2. Động từ have/ had:

VD: I had many homework that you have to do.

=> I had many homework to do.

  1.  Đầu câu có  here (be), there ( be):

VD:  There are 3 letters which have to be filled in this exercise.

=> There are 3 letters to be filled in this exercises.

*** Lưu ý:

Trong phần To Inf này các bạn cần nhớ 2 điều sau:

  1. Nếu chủ ngữ của hai mệnh đề khác nhau thì các bạn thêm cụm for sb trước to_ V.

Vd: I have so many beautiful cards that Linh can take to send to her family.

=>  I have so many beautiful cards for Linh to take to send to her family.

  1. Nếu chủ ngữ đó là đại từ bất định có nghĩa chung chung như: we, you, everyone,… thì có thể lược bỏ.

  Vd: I come up with some ideas that we can discuss.

=> I come up with some ideas to discuss.

  1. Nếu trước đại từ quan hệ có giới từ thì phải để giới từ cuối câu ( đây là lỗi sai phổ biến nhất).

Vd:  We had a garden that our children  could play in.

=> We had a garden for our children  to play in.

IV. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách sử dụng cụm danh từ ( đồng cách danh từ).

Đối với mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định có thể được rút gọn bằng cách dùng cụm danh từ có dạng:

 

Relative Pronoun + be + danh từ/ cụm danh từ/ cụm giới từ

 

 

Cách làm: bỏ đại từ quan hệ như who ,which và bỏ luôn cả be.

Vd: football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health.

=> Football, a popular sport, is very good for health.

Vd: Mai Anh, who was the first president in our  company, achieved the first prize in this program.

=> Mai Anh, the first president in our company, achieved the first prize in this program.

V. Mệnh đề rút gọn tính từ có dạng:  Relative Pronoun + be + tính từ/ cụm tính từ.

  1. Bỏ đại từ quan hệ và to be, giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau:

Điều kiện 1: Nếu phía trước that là đại từ bất định như something, anything, anybody, somebody,...

VD: There is something that is wrong.

=> There is something wrong.

Điều kiện 2: Có dấu phẩy phía trước và phải có từ 2 tính từ trở lên.

Vd:

Lan Anh, who is beautiful and smart, is the best girl in my class.

=> Lan Anh, beautiful and smart, is the best girl in my class.

  1. Những trường hợp còn lại, các bạn đem tính từ lên trước danh từ.

Vd:

 Lan Anh, who is beautiful, is the best girl in my class.

=> My beautiful friend is the best girl in my class.

  1. Nếu cụm tính từ gồm cả danh từ ở trong nó thì các bạn chỉ có một cách dùng duy nhất đó là V_ing.

VD:  My best friend, who is interested in Math, is living next to my house.

=> My best friend, being interested in Math, is living next to my house.

VI. Mệnh đề tính từ thành tính từ ghép.

Cách làm: Ta sẽ rút gọn mệnh đề thành một tính từ ghép bằng cách tìm trong mệnh đề một số đếm và danh từ đi sau nó, sau đó ta để chúng kế nhau và thêm dấu gạch nối ở giữa. Đem tính từ ghép đó ra trước danh từ đứng trước who, which… những phần còn lại được lược bỏ.

* Danh từ không được thêm 's'. 

* Chỉ dùng được dạng này khi mệnh đề tính từ có số đếm. 

* Các cụm từ như tuổi thì sẽ viết lại cả 3 từ và gạch nối giữa chúng ( three-year-old). 

Ví dụ:
We have a break that lasts 15 minutes.

We have a 15-minute break.

VII. Các bước rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Bước 1: Tìm xem mệnh đề tính từ nằm ở đâu, mệnh đề tính từ thường bắt đầu bằng who, which, that,…

Bước 2: Bước này chủ yếu là giảm từ mệnh đề xuống cụm từ.

1. Nhìn xem mệnh đề có công thức của cụm danh từ không? Nếu có áp dụng công thức ở mục IV.
2. Nếu không có công thức đó thì xem các dấu hiệu như the first, only,… không, nếu có thì áp dụng công thức ở mục III. Ngoài ra, cần phải thêm xem 2 chủ từ có khác nhau không (để dùng for sb).
3 .Nếu không có 2 trường hợp trên mới xét xem câu đó chủ động hay bị động mà dùng V-ing hay V-ed.

 

BÀI TẬP I :
Hãy rút gọn các mệnh đề tính từ trong các câu sau đây:
1) We had a river in which we could swim.
2) Here are some accounts that you must check.
3) The last student that was interviewed was Tom.
4) We visited Hanoi, which is the capital of VN.
5) My father, who is a pilot, often goes abroad.
6) I was the only one who realized him.
7) I have some homework which I must do tonight.
8) Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.
9) I was awakened by the sound of a laughter which came from the room which was next to mine at the motel.
10) There are six reports which have to be typed today.

ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP I :
Hãy rút gọn các mệnh đề tính từ trong các câu sau đây
1) We had a river in which we could swim.
- We had a river to swim in.
2) Here are some accounts that you must check.
- Here are some accounts for you to check
3) The last student that was interviewed was Tom.
- Tom was the last student to be interviewed
4) We visited Hanoi, which is the capital of VN.
- We visited Hanoi, the capital of VN.
5) My father, who is a pilot, often goes abroad.
- My father, a pilot, often goes abroad.
6) I was the only one who realized him.
- I was the only one to realize him.
7) I have some homework which I must do tonight.
- I have some homework to do tonight.
8) Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.
- Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.
9) I was awakened by the sound of a laughter which came from the room which was next to mine at the motel.
- I was awakened by the sound of a laughter coming from the room next to mine at the motel.
10) There are six reports which have to be typed today
- There are six reports to be typed today.

BÀI TẬP II
Hãy rút gọn các mệnh đề tính từ trong các câu sau đây
1) Dalat, which is best known for foreign travellers, has pleasant weather.
2) Animals that are born in a zoo generally adjust to captivity better than those that are captured in the wild.
3) Few tourists ever see a jaguar, which is a spotted wild cat that is native to tropical America.
4) She is the only woman who was appointed to the board.
5) The floor is dusty but I haven't got a brush with which I can sweep it.
6) A person who serves in a shop is called a shop assistant
7) John, who is my friend, has studied English for ten years.
8) There are many exercises that we have to finish before school.
9) The mistakes which you have to correct are very important.
10) We have a few exercises that we have to do.

Chú ý : nếu câu nào có 2 mệnh đề tính từ cũng phải rút gọn cả hai


ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP II
1) Dalat, which is best known for foreign travellers, has pleasant weather.
=>Dalat, best known for foreign travellers, has pleasant weather.
2) Animals that are born in a zoo generally adjust to captivity better than those that are captured in the wild.
=>Animals born in a zoo generally adjust to captivity better than those captured in the wild.
3) Few tourists ever see a jaguar, which is a spotted wild cat that is native to tropical America.
=>Few tourists ever see a jaguar, a spotted wild cat that is native to tropical America.
4) She is the only woman who was appointed to the board.
=>She is the only woman to be appointed to the board.
*5) The floor is dusty but I haven't got a brush with which I can sweep it.
=>The floor is dusty but I haven't got a brush to sweep it with.
6) A person who serves in a shop is called a shop assistant
=>The person serving in a shop is called a shop assistant
7) John, who is my friend, has studied English for ten years.
=>John, my friend, has studied English for ten years.
8) There are many exercises that we have to finish before school.
=>There are many exercises for us to finish before school.
9) The mistakes which you have to correct are very important.
=>The mistakes for you to correct are very important.
10) We have a few exercises that we have to do.
=>We have a few exercises to do.
Những vấn đề cần lưu ý :
- Nhớ đem giới từ (nếu có ) trước which/whom ra phía sau (câu 5 )
- Chỉ bỏ for sb khi nào có ý chung chung chứ không phải thấy you và we là có thể bỏ được (câu 8,9)

RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ
Đầu trang chúng ta đã học qua 4 dạng rút gọn là :
1- Cụm P.P
2- Cụm V_ing
3- Cụm to_inf.
4- Đồng cách danh từ (Cụm danh từ )
Nay ta lại cùng nhau học về dạng thứ 5. Đây là dạng rút gọn khi mà mệnh đề tính từ có dạng be và tính từ /cụm tính từ
Có 2 công thức rút gọn như sau:
Công thức 1- Bỏ who ,which...to be -> giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau.
Điều kiện 1:
Nếu phía trứoc that là đại từ phiếm chỉ như: something, anything, anybody...
There must be something that is wrong
=> There must be something that is wrong
=>There must be something wrong
Điều kiện 2:
Có dấu phẩy phía trước và phải có từ 2 tính từ trở lên
My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.
My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.
=> My grandmother, old and sick, never goes out of the house.
My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house.
=> My grandmother, sick, never goes out of the house. (sai -> vì chỉ có một tính từ sick)

Công thức 2
Nếu ngoài các trường hợp trên thì ta đem tính từ lên trước danh từ :
My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house.
My sick grandmother never goes out of the house.
I buy a hat which is very beautiful and fashionable
=>I buy a very beautiful and fashionable hat .
Tuy nhiên nếu là cụm tính từ phức tạp hơn trong đó bao gồm cả danh từ thì chỉ còn cách dụng V_ing mà thôi
I met a man who was very good at both English and French.
I met a man being very good at both English and French.
Tóm lại cách rút gọn loại này khá phức tạp vì nó tuỳ thuộc vào 3 yếu tố :
- có một hay nhiều tính từ
- danh từ đứng trước có phải là phiếm chỉ không
- có dấu phẩy hay không
Bài tập 03
Rewrite the following sentences:
1. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.
2. The queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which has been built on the island.
3. Arizona, which was once thought to be a useless desert, is today a rapidly growing industrial and agricultural.
4. The country now has 300 power stations. All of them are part of a national network.
5. The picture is beautiful. Tom is looking at it.
6. Where can I catch the bus? - It goes downtown.
7. I have a class. It begins at 8 a.m
8. Mr. Marks, whose farm the stream flows across, is unhappy about the plans for the new dam.
9. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.
10. He was the first man who left the burning building.
Bài tập 03: Rewrite the following sentences:[keys]
1. Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.
2. The queen Elizabeth is the largest ship to be built on the island.
Câu nì mình làm thế này đc không? The queen Elizabeth is the largest ship to have been built on the island.
3. Arizona, once thought to be a useless desert, is today a rapidly growing industrial and agricultural.
4. The country now has 300 power stations, All of which are part of a national network.
5. The picture at which Tom is lookịng is beautiful.
6. Where can I catch the bus going downtown?
7. I have a class beginning at 8 a.m
8. Mr. Marks, across whose farm the stream flows, is unhappy about the plans for the new dam.
9. The photographs published in the newspaper were extraordinary.
10. He was the first man to leave the burning building.

Bài tập về rút gọn mệnh đề  :
1) I've just bought a house which has five storeys.
2) Have you ever seen a cow which has six legs ?
3) The girl who is ten years old is my sister.
4) Give me the note which costs ten dollars.
5) Vietnamese students have a summer holiday which lasts 3 months.
6) We have two breaks which last 30 minutes.
7) That is a car which has three wheels.
8) The man who has one leg looks at me angrily.
9) The snake which has two heads is not found.
10) Mikoon is a monster which has 6 heads

* KEY:
bài tập về rút gọn mệnh đề  :
1) I've just bought a house which has five storeys.
=> I've just bought a five- storey house .
2) Have you ever seen a cow which has six legs ?
=> Have you ever seen a six-leg cow?
3) The girl who is ten years old is my sister.
=> The ten- yea-old girl is my sister.
4) Give me the note which costs ten dollars.
=> Give me the ten- dollar note.
5) Vietnamese students have a summer holiday which lasts 3 months .
=> Vietnamese students have a three- month summer holiday.
6) We have two breaks which last 30 minutes.
=> We have two thirty- minute breaks.
7) That is a car which has three wheels.
=> That is a three- wheel car.
8) The man who has one leg looks at me angrily.
=>The one-leg man looks at me angrily.
9) The snake which has two heads is not found.
=>The two- head snake is not found.
10) Mikoon is a monster which has 6 heads
=> Mikoon is a six-head monster.


BÀI TẬP SỐ 2
Hãy nối 2 câu thành một, dùng tính từ ghép :
1) I live in a house. It has 8 doors.
2) My house is very nice. It has 5 storeys.
3) I like my friend's cell phone. It has two numbers.
4) The fans are very interesting. They have 3 speeds.
5) Do you want to take part in the trip? It will last 5 days.
6) With a capacity of 10 horse power, this machine is good for you work shop.
7) I have just attended a wedding. There were 30 tables in this wedding.
8) I buy a house. It has 11 rooms.

KEY BÀI TẬP SỐ 2
Hãy nối 2 câu thành một, dùng tính từ ghép :
1) I live in a house. It has 8 doors.
=> I live in an 8- door house.
2) My house is very nice .It has 5 storeys.
=> My 5- storey house is very nice.
3) I like my friend's cell phone . It has two numbers.
=>I like my friend's two- number cell phone.
4) The fans are very interesting .They have 3 speeds.
=>The three-speed fans are very interesting.
5) Do you want to take part in the trip ? It will last 5 days.
=> Do you want to take part in the five- day trip?
6) With a capacity of 10 horse power , this machine is good for you work shop.
=>This ten- horse -power machine is good for you work shop.
7) I have just attended a wedding . There were 30 tables in this wedding.
=> I have just attended a thirty- table wedding.
8) I buy a house .It has 11 rooms.
=> I buy an eleven-room house.


Ex 4: Rewrite:
1. Some people live in HongKong. They earn a lot of money.
2. He married a girl. She later became a successful writer
3. They seem to give the children anything that they want.
4. Well, They said they want a pay rise. It is unreasonable.
5. We often go to visit our friends in Shekou. It is quite near ferry.
6. Who was that lady? I saw you with last night.
7. The people who I work with are very friendly.
8. Where do those guys come from? You borrowed their car.
9. Our boss had a heart attack last week. He hasn’t been back to work since.
10. The woman with whom he has been having an affair, has been moved to another office.

Ex 4: Rewrite:
1. Some people live in HongKong. They earn a lot of money.
=> Some people who live in HongKong earn a lot of money.
2. He married a girl. She later became a successful writer
=> The girl that he married became a successful writer.
Trích:
*3. They seem to give the children anything that they want.
=> They seem to give the children anything which they want.
4. Well, They said they want a pay rise. It is unreasonable.
=> Well, They said they want a pay rise, which is unreasonable.
*5. We often go to visit our friends in Shekou. It is quite near ferry.
=> We often go to visit our friends in Shekou, where is quite near ferry.
*6. Who was that lady? I saw you with last night.
=> Who was that lady, with whom I saw you last night? or Who was that lady, who I saw you with last night?
7. The people who I work with are very friendly.
=> The people with whom I work are very friendly.
8. Where do those guys come from? You borrowed their car.
=> Where do those guys, whose car you borrowed , come from?
9. Our boss had a heart attack last week. He hasn’t been back to work since.
=> Our boss , who had a heart attack last week , hasn’t been back to work since.
10. The woman with whom he has been having an affair, has been moved to another office.
=> The woman who he has been having an affair with has been moved to another office.

Ex 5: Combine the following pairs of sentences, using prep with pronoun:
1. That's the man. I got the bag from him yesterday.
2. Economics is a subject. I am very interested in it.
3. This is Joanne. I gave my notes to her.
4. The friend spoke French. Jim was travelling with him.
5. The ladder began to slip. Tom was standing on it.
6. This is the city. I was born in this city.
7. Paul is fitter than you. I play tennis with him on weekends.
8. The woman said the machine was very good. Jim bought the machine from her.
9. The chair is in bad shape. You are sitting on it.

Ex 5: Combine the following pairs of sentences, using prep with pronoun:
1. That's the man. I got the bag from him yesterday.
=> That's the man from whom I got the bag yesterday.
2. Economics is a subject. I am very interested in it.
=> Economics is a subject in which I am very interested.
3. This is Joanne. I gave my notes to her.
=> This is Joanne, to whom I gave my notes.
4. The friend spoke French. Jim was travelling with him.
=> The friend with whom Jim was travelling spoke French.
5. The ladder began to slip. Tom was standing on it.
=> The ladder on which Tom was standing began to slip.
6. This is the city. I was born in this city.
=> This is the city in which I was born.
7. Paul is fitter than you. I play tennis with him on weekends.
=> Paul, which whom I play tennis on weekends , is fitter than you.
8. The woman said the machine was very good. Jim bought the machine from her.
=> The woman from whom Jim bought the machine said the machine was very good.
9. The chair is in bad shape. You are sitting on it.
=> The chair on which you are sitting is in bad shape.

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